Chelsey Boutan is an author from the College of DuPage. Sedehi, Kamelia, et al. The Emancipation Proclamation of technically freed slaves. In The Color Purple, however, Alice Walker insists that slavery is not quite gone; it has merely manifested itself in different ways. The argument posed by this article is that The Color Purple focuses on the juncture of racism and sexism. This article begins with an introduction, which laid out the argument, including the main themes that would be analyzed throughout the text; next, the article entered into a discussion, during which the ideas of cyclical versus linear time were introduced, and themes were analyzed more completely; and finally, the article ended with a conclusion.
Roseli Talif and Wan Yahya are associate professors at Universiti Putra Malaysia, and their interests include gender roles in literature.
Kardev Kaur, Ph. Abbandonato, Linda. In fact, any woman who tries to make a name for herself under the constraints of patriarchy will certainly be met with challenges. As sexuality is twisted through a masculine lens, lesbians are pushed under the scorn of society. At this point in her article, Abbandonato describes the way in which sexuality is a masculine construct meant to assert the power of the patriarchy. This is a fundamental struggle faced by Celie in The Color Purple , as her sexuality is merely an object controlled by men.
This highlights yet another layer of oppression imposed upon African American women.
Abbandonato now moves on to a connection between sexuality and African American voice. Shug, a strong character, is open about her sexuality; Celie, who is trapped in a relationship with her husband, is weak. When Celie finally finds her voice and identity and grows intimate with Shug, Abbandonato argues that Celie has broken from the chains of the patriarchy. Her new view on sexuality is inexplicably linked with her sense of self.azundesisdiff.tk
The White Peacock (Chapter 2) - D. H. Lawrence
Tucker, Lindsey. Withholding language is akin to withholding power. Finally, Tucker highlights the importance of Celie learning to read. Similar to being unable to name objects and people, illiteracy fosters oppression.
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Thus, as Celie begins to learn to read, first from the help of Nettie and finally on her own, her understanding of language inches her further along the path to independence. Jones, Sharon L. Images of African-American Women in Film. According to Jones, the vast majority of black women in films are all portrayals of the same African American woman stereotype that black women belong along the margins of society and are powerless.
This emphasizes the built-in racial and gender hierarchy present in American society then and now. Jones analyzes three films with prominent black female leads: The Color Purple , Waiting to Exhale ,and Jackie Brown for signs of progression or regression on the cinematic portrayal of black women. The film The Color Purple garnered attention in respects to its ideas on female sexuality with its attempt to portray the lesbian relationship between Shug and Celie. Moreover, Jones expresses how the film adaptation acknowledges sexual oppression by conveying black women as inanimate objects that have no control over their own bodies and life; however, the film ends with Celie rising from the ashes of her former disempowered self to become a strong successful black woman despite her abusive past.
This exemplifies the idea of female empowerment. Jones continues to express how the film describes racial prejudice in terms of sex instead of addressing it in respect to the racist atmosphere present in American society today. In addition, in the crime film Jackie Brown , Jones notes how the Hollywood film finally paints the image of a smart black woman that can outsmart the law; nevertheless, Jackie Brown remains unnoticed at the edges of American society.
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In contrast, the film Jackie Brown is representative of the new directions that can be taken with African American women at the helm. Sharon L. Jones is an assistant professor of English at Earlham College. Jones work mainly focuses on African American Literature as well as 19th century and contemporary literature. Peacock, John. Yet, the film once again omits this small but meaningful interaction. On the other hand, face scarring was not completely omitted from the film; however, the context of face scarring in the novel differs from that of the movie.
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For instance, in the novel, face scarring represents a righteous act of tribal solidarity after the African village was ransacked by whites, whereas in the film, face scarring is portrayed as barbaric. In other words, in the eyes of Peacock, the film has become another example of American consumerism and a by-product of the African American stereotype. Peacock completed his undergraduate studies in anthropology at Harvard University and received his Ph.
He is also a Andrew W. McMullen, Wayne J.
In this article, McMullen and Solomon wishes to investigate the possible consequences that film adaptations have on the ideologies of the American public in a multi-faceted argument. Admittedly, it is nearly impossible to include every detail from the original work when adapting it to the big screen.
Of the latter, were hypothetical genes; the remainder was annotated with putative functions, for example, encoding surface proteins and ribosomal proteins. It should be noted that some of the non-shared loci are explained by different calls for genes versus pseudogenes in the manual and automatic annotation. The inherent variation between species and strains of many parasites makes them an obvious target for large-scale sequencing and comparative analysis. Long read sequencing technologies will enable parasitologists to sequence new subspecies or strains to better understand variation in these parasites.
Although the assembly process has been improved by recent advances in assembly methods 36 , 37 , the required process to annotate a genome is more difficult to streamline. Tools must be trained individually and do not perform as well separately as they do in combination. Though there are tools to visualize genome annotations 38 , 39 , a user might also appreciate an easier way to assess the quality of the annotation.
To address these needs we have developed the Companion web server. It does not only automate the difficult step of ab initio gene finding but also improves it. We show that this approach outperforms individual gene finders run separately see Supplementary Table S1.
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The annotations generated by Companion are rich in information including GO, products, EC numbers, protein domains, etc. Annotations can be produced in relatively little time due to the high amount of automation involved. A full annotation run for a Plasmodium genome including protein and RNA-seq evidence typically takes about 11 hours, a more streamlined run without these takes about 9 h.
It is important to note that genome annotation in general is not an error-free process. However, the results of the Leishmania and Plasmodium species benchmarks show that Companion delivers largely accurate results. Gene models highly conserved in both the target and the reference are easily transferred, while the sensitivity of the ab initio detection of species-specific genes is tunable using score thresholds at a minor expense in specificity.
We consider this evidence that good results are obtained when suitable, closely related reference species are selected. For more distant references, our experience has shown that the level of success strongly depends on the particular species.
Another notable novel feature in comparison to existing gene finders is the prediction of pseudogenes. Rather than generating shorter or fragmented gene models, Companion keeps and marks pseudogenes as potential indicators of biologically relevant changes in the target genome. The overall aim of Companion is to make a first-pass analysis of the annotation as easy as possible.
The Circos plots are also helpful to identify rearrangements or misassemblies by providing a chromosome level view of the total genome. In combination, we expect these features to help researchers without a deep bioinformatics background make the most of a given genome sequence using a very low amount of effort. We have developed a new, integrated software pipeline for the reference-based annotation of parasite genomes and made it available on a public web server. By combining and adapting a multitude of state-of-the-art third-party software, we obtain results that are consistently better than the ones produced by simple runs of stand-alone gene finders.
The annotation results can be viewed and queried in the Companion web front-end for the essential first-pass analysis. Hand in hand with the improvement of sequencing and assembly technologies, we expect a resource such as Companion to enable parasitology researchers to populate databases with often neglected parasite genomes, leading to more consistent and complete analyses in the field. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
Journal List Nucleic Acids Res v. Nucleic Acids Res.
Published online Apr Otto 1. Thomas D. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.