Bassett writes primarily in French. Her work is, however, internationally recognized, and various of her books have been translated into Dutch, English, German, Italian and Portuguese. Her book Ce lien qui ne meurt jamais "The bond that never dies" was written in response to the suicide of her year-old son.
She is also a political activist, associated with a number of movements in favour of sustainable development and against violence. A complete online bibliography is available here. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article has multiple issues. The Hebrew Bibles and Plantin's first Greek editions also deserve mention.
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The Gulden Passer in the Kammenstraat soon became too cramped for the steadily growing concern. In Plantin moved for the fourth and penultimate time.
He remained, however, in the Kammenstraat. From the 11th to the 15th July of that year his eighteen employees, aided by porters and waggoners, lugged the entire contents of the Gulden Passer to the house called the Grote Valk [Great Falcon] farther along the street. This house was in its turn re-christened the Gulden Passer : on 16th August Plantin paid Pieter Huys, the well-known painter, the sum of 5 fl. The partnership had been entered into for eight years, renewable after four.
Plantin in fact kept the company accounts up to the end of the first term, to 5th October Yet the last edition entered up for the company was completed on 28th August, 3. The same theme is taken up in various other letters that he addressed to influential Catholic personages at this time. What had happened? Goropius Becanus must have belonged to the same heterodox sect as Plantin. Jacob de Schotti's orthodoxy does not appear to have been doubtful, at least not sufficiently so to be disturbing.
During and. When the tide turned early in and Margaret of Parma's forces were pressing hard on the rebels, so that it began to look as if Antwerp too would be obliged to open its gates to the royal troops, the two Van Bomberghens decided it was high time to take precautions. In January Cornelis van Bomberghen sold his share in the company to his brother-in-law Jacob de Schotti and in February he disappeared from the Netherlands. He was probably accompanied on his flight by Karel van Bomberghen. How the latter realized his share in the undertaking is hard to say.
It is even possible that the lord of Haren may have ceased to be part of the company as early as February , and that Fernando de Bernuy did not actually buy a new share, but simply took over that of his kinsman. These and other small mysteries connected with the break-up of the partnership could only be cleared up by a systematic study of the accounts. Fernando de Bernuy was just as ardent a Calvinist, and just as compromised as the two Van Bomberghens.
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He may have waited a little longer to see how the situation would develop, but the news of Alva's arrival must have encouraged him to make haste: on 13th July the company's journal closed with the payment of about pond to this shareholder. That de Bernuy had already placed a safe distance between himself and the Netherlands by this time and received the money via intermediaries are possibilities that cannot be entirely ruled out.
Plantin must also have severed his financial ties with Goropius Becanus and Jacob de Schotti in the same period, thereby regaining his freedom of movement.leondumoulin.nl/language/dictionaries/1066-sound-of.php
Plantin certainly made this move, but not the moment the Van Bom-. Oil painting on panel by Rubens. Montanus is portrayed wearing the mantle of a knight in the Spanish military order of St. The portrait was commissioned by Balthasar I Moretus between and He only took the step when his Calvinist partners were likely to be crushed in the machinery of repression and he himself was in danger of being dragged after them to destruction.
It is even conceivable that the initiative for liquidation came as much from the other partners as from Plantin. The Van Bomberghens and de Bernuy may have insisted on settling their affairs before their flight, so that they could take as much in the way of cash or liquid assets abroad with them as possible. The two remaining partners, Jacob de Schotti - who had become the principal shareholder after the transfer of Cornelis van Bomberghen's portion - and Goropius Becanus, were relatively neutral in their religious opinions and therefore less of a danger to Plantin. Because of the uncertainties of the times, however, and realizing that their family enjoyed little popularity in government circles, they may also have prepared for the possibility of a hasty departure and wanted liquidation.
The break with his Calvinist partners, moreover, was not as drastic as Plantin made it appear in his letters to pro-Spanish persons at this time. Even after August he was frequently in contact with the Van Bomberghens, borrowing money from them on some occasions; these contacts and transactions, however, were carefully camouflaged in his correspondence and in his accounts.
In August Plantin was left on his own, but this time with a well-equipped printing-office and a still substantial working capital. Nevertheless payment of the amounts owed to his partners, and the troubled times that did anything but encourage the buying of such luxuries as books, must certainly have curbed his activities.
In these troubled months the printer was wrestling with serious financial problems. In January he complained that only three of his seven presses were working; 2. On the other hand he was successful in finding a source from which he could obtain ready money, the commodity he most needed.
Late in , when Paris was momentarily peaceful and therefore relatively eager to buy, he had set up a well-appointed bookshop in Porret's house in the rue Saint-Jacques, where he might hope to place a considerable stock of his books. At the same time he had found a number of powerful Spanish patrons through whom he had been able to win the support of Philip himself for certain of his plans.
He could face the future with a calmer mind than in and He became involved in the distasteful matter of a clandestine anti-Spanish press.
When Alva rode into Brussels at the head of his tercios on 22nd August and the repression set in, the printer had reason to fear the worst. This crisis was not only to pass: Plantin's attempts to break out of the net that enmeshed him led to a new period of expansion, greater even than the previous one. It led to the zenith of his career - and the beginning of his great financial difficulties. In the province of South Holland, a few miles south of Utrecht, lies the small town of Vianen, in the sixteenth century the most important possession of the proud family of the Brederodes.
There were already a few printers established at Vianen, but so far as can be discovered their equipment was rather rudimen-. He was probably much better equipped than his Dutch colleagues, but barely had time to install himself. At the beginning of the foot companies and cavalry of Margaret of Parma started swiftly to roll up the Protestant positions. At Oosterweel near Antwerp on 13th March the inexperienced recruits of the Calvinist leader de Toulouze were surprised and massacred. On 27th April it was the turn of Hendrik van Brederode to leave Amsterdam to seek safety over the eastern frontier.
On 3rd May Margaret's troops marched into Vianen. The new printer was swept along in the general flight and hurried over the German border to the safety of Wesel. He does not seem to have had the time or opportunity to print much: perhaps one or two religious tracts by Hendrik Niclaes, although these are more likely to have been printed in Wesel.
The man had more than likely come to Vianen to set up an anti-Spanish, and presumably pro-Calvinist, press. The printer was a certain Augustijn van Hasselt. The man behind the scenes who furnished Van Hasselt with materials and enabled him to establish his printing-press, was his former employer on whose pay-roll he was entered as a journeyman printer until 2nd November - Christophe Plantin. Plantin cannot be called a commercial adventurer.
He lacked the ruthless, self-assured effrontery of such types. But he did possess their reckless spirit. His dare-devil gambling with fate carried him to the highest point of fame and prestige that a printer has ever reached - and soured his old age with racking financial worries. There is a whole world of difference, however, between recklessness and the patronizing of such an enterprise as that at Vianen.
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The hope of financial gain can have been only slight; the likelihood of reaping the whirlwind so much the greater. As a man of. In religion his sympathies certainly did not extend towards fanatical and belligerent Calvinism.
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Augustijn van Hasselt was also a member of the Family of Love and had actually been sent by Hendrik Niclaes to Plantin to learn the craft of printing. He later became printer to the sect in Cologne. It might at first be thought that the idea was to set up a propaganda centre of the Family of Love within Hendrik van Brederode's sphere of influence. The Calvinists, however, were just as implacable and violent in their dealings with zealots of anabaptist tendencies as were the Catholics.
The leader of the Family of Love thoroughly disapproved of the venture and censured Plantin as well as Van Hasselt; 1. The Vianen enterprise was certainly not begun on the initiative of Niclaes's sect. Taking all these factors into account, it would appear that Plantin was forced into this adventure against his will by Calvinist elements.
The real culprits are not far to seek. When these events took place the Officina Plantiniana was still a company. Three of Plantin's partners were ardent Calvinists - and Karel van Bomberghen was the brother of Antoon van Bomberghen, Hendrik van Brederode's fierce lieutenant who was killed by a shot from a Spanish harquebus in October , when the army of William of Orange was crossing the Gete.
It may be assumed that it was Plantin's Calvinist partners who, influenced by their kinsman Antoon van Bomberghen, aimed at setting up the anti-.
Spanish press at Vianen, and that Plantin followed them only reluctantly.