For example, many more people aged 12—17 received treatment for marijuana use than for alcohol use in When adolescents do drink alcohol, they are more likely than adults to binge drink defined as five or more drinks in a row on a single occasion. Adolescents also may be less likely than adults to feel they need help or to seek treatment on their own. Given their shorter histories of using drugs as well as parental protection , adolescents may have experienced relatively few adverse consequences from their drug use; their incentive to change or engage in treatment may correspond to the number of such consequences they have experienced.
Only 10 percent of to year-olds needing substance abuse treatment actually receive any services. By far, the largest proportion of adolescents who receive treatment are referred by the juvenile justice system see figure. Given that adolescents with substance use problems often feel they do not need help, engaging young patients in treatment often requires special skills and patience.
Many treatment approaches are available to address the unique needs of adolescents. Whether delivered in residential or inpatient settings or offered on an outpatient basis, effective treatments for adolescents primarily consist of some form of behavioral therapy. Addiction medications, while effective and widely prescribed for adults, are not generally approved by the U. Such issues should be addressed at the same time as the substance use treatment.
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Enlisting and engaging the adolescent in treatment is only part of a sometimes long and complex recovery process. When an adolescent requires substance abuse treatment, follow-up care and recovery support e. When substance use disorders are identified and treated in adolescence—especially if they are mild or moderate—they frequently give way to abstinence from drugs with no further problems.
Relapse is a possibility, however, as it is with other chronic diseases like diabetes or asthma. Relapse should not be seen as a sign that treatment failed but as an occasion to engage in additional or different treatment. Averting and detecting relapse involves monitoring by the adolescent, parents, and teachers, as well as follow-up by treatment providers. The paramilitaries were for the most part decommissioned, but Don Berna and other commanders were extradited to the US, tried and jailed.
A reformist alliance then emerged: That is not how it is, and we now need radical and urgent change. We in Latin America have had enough.
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As hosts to last year's summit of the Americas, Colombia launched an initiative "to re-think the whole issue from scratch", explains Ambassador Rodriguez. This initiative is based in part on calculations of how little the country benefits from the trade that has torn it asunder. Once across the US border: The price rises exponentially after it leaves Colombia's influence or gain. The only person who ever came near covering the whole chain was Pablo Escobar.
Some people say he made a deal with Fajardo, to keep things calm. As the failed war on drugs moves centre stage in global strategic thinking, debate rages over how to tackle the cartels. In addition, Farc has itself become a major cocaine cartel. The other relative novelty, as in every Latin American city, is the rise and rise of domestic addiction to hard drugs — and crack cocaine in particular. For where the river runs through, people will drink — yet another scourge bequeathed by the rich "consumers" to the poor "producers" — and their young become consumers, too.
Questions about new gang formations and the complexities of post-Escobar drug turf are met with a shrug. An eight-year-old was spared and sent away, but two year-olds were taken, tortured and dismembered. He goes by his stage name, Jeihhco, and wears his heart on his T-shirt: Hip-hoppers por la paz for peace. He attracts huge crowds and an international internet following with his songs, which rail in equal measure against gangland violence and official corruption. But bad news comes often — several of my friends in the hip-hop peace movement have been killed.
Sometimes they cross the invisible frontiers, sometimes they get caught in crossfire or by a ricochet and sometimes it's no accident at all.
But we can present an alternative role model to everyone else — music instead of violence; we urge the youth not to harm others. We protest against the media and glorification of the narcos in telenovelas, all that shit.
Surveying the changes under Fajardo and since, Jeihhco says: And of course we agree with the changes. But they need to keep attacking the causes, not the effects. Mindfulness-based therapy seeks to distract the person from their highly aroused and overly preoccupied patterns of thinking and emotional distress. It has much in common with other meditative and yoga-based relaxation techniques. In this new study, 58 veterans with PTSD received nine sessions of mindfulness-based stress reduction, while 58 others received the control therapy focusing on resolution of daily problems.
However, at a two month follow-up, this group was no more likely to have lost the PTSD diagnosis. Therefore, while the study suggests the approach may work in the short-term, more work is required to establish its real utility compared with existing trauma-focused approaches. Following the Vietnam conflict, the psychological and medical literature focused more narrowly on defining PTSD and its relationship to the extent and specific circumstances of combat exposure. Around one in five had at least one disorder in the past 12 months and 6.
The rate of PTSD was higher among troops: 8. Interestingly, our young male troops also had higher rates of depression than the general population but lower rates of alcohol misuse. All studies in currently serving personnel, however, are likely to underrate the lifetime rates of PTSD and other mental disorders. As our soldiers move from active duty back to civilian life, rates are likely to increase significantly. A major consideration for the development of all alternative psychological approaches to trauma is their ability to be delivered effectively to the larger number of ex-service personnel who report a mixture of PTSD-related problems alongside other psychological and medical difficulties.
To do this efficiently, we need an extended range of therapeutic options that can be more effectively personalized: tailored to the specific needs and preferences of the person and their family members. We also need our health systems to be responsive to those affected. There is still much work to be done to improve the mental well-being of active personnel. This includes:. The combination of more personalised services, more effective psychological and social interventions, and new technologies gives us the capacity to mount a much more effective response to these major sources of ongoing disability than at any previous point in our history.
Since major gun law reform 20 years ago, Australia has seen no mass shootings and an accelerating decline in intentional firearm deaths, the Journal of the American Medical Association reports today.
As the world mourns the tragic loss of 50 lives, how can we answer the questions around homophobia and mental health raised by the Orlando shooting? Confidence is key when motivating young people to change their diet and exercise habits, new research from the University of Sydney shows. The award will see Dr Seneviratne head to Stanford University to continue his ground-breaking work into clinical informatics. Some of the challenge of adjustment is related to language acquisition Olsen, Before the child acquires the ability to competently express herself, she often goes through a silent phase where she becomes invisible in the classroom Merchant, Understanding and then addressing student needs during the critical transition phase for newcomer students is an important area for intervention.
For instance, advisory programs that partner students with one another and with older peers can foster communities of learning and emotional support. In these advisory groups, students are encouraged to openly discuss a range of topics, from difficulties with a class to missing families and friends back home to interpersonal issues. As part of classroom instruction, writing prompts also may encourage students to share their personal migration experiences and engage them in class discussions. Immigrant-origin youth are over-represented in highly segregated and impoverished urban settings Orfield, Many immigrant youth are served by Title I schools, which are profoundly influenced by requirements of federal and state policies.
It is critical that teachers become aware of the implications of these policies for students. The law required annual English language proficiency exams for ELL students. All students were tested in math and science beginning in their first year of enrollment, though accommodations were made to test ELL students in their mother tongue. More contentious were new federal regulations regarding English language arts ELA and reading assessments.
In particular, ELLs were not supposed to be tested using the same exam as native speakers, but regulations did not dictate to states the contents of the ELA exam. Though research has consistently shown that, no matter the age, developing academic English language takes time Cummins, , many states used standard ELA exams after one year of enrollment to assess Adequate Yearly Progress. Thus an impossible benchmark was set that would penalize schools with high numbers of ELLs, placing them at risk of losing standing and funding under NCLB Escamilla et al.
Math assessments, for example, require not only solving computation problems but responding to word problems — tasks that require English language skills.
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By documenting which groups and sites are doing well in comparison to others and by providing insights into the processes that account for differences, as well as alternative strategies for assessment, teachers and researchers can begin to shed light on practices, programs, and policies that can make a difference for new Americans. Immigrant-origin youth are the fastest-growing student population in our country. Over time, however, many immigrant youth, especially those enrolling in impoverished, segregated, and mediocre schools, face negative odds and uncertain prospects.
The shared fortunes of immigrant and native citizens alike will be tied to successfully linking our youngest new Americans to the educational and economic opportunity structure, to civic belonging, and full democratic participation. Embracing immigrant children and cultivating their full potential is the education challenge of our generation. The stakes are high: Their future is our future. Agbenyega, S. Minority children and their over-representation in special education.
Education-Indianapolis, , Crossroads: The psychology of immigration in the new century. APA presidential task force on immigration. Washington, DC: Author. Bayley, R. Introduction: The acquisition of sociolinguistic competence. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 8, Duncan, G. Restoring opportunity: The crisis of inequality and the challenge of American Education. Escamilla, K. High-stakes testing, Latinos, and English language learners: Lessons from Colorado.